The past 10 years have seen tremendous progress in the field of immunotherapy, particularly in the area of T cell therapies. This approach is exemplified by engineered T cells bearing an artificial Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) that recognizes a specific protein expressed on the surface of tumor cells leading to rapid activation and tumor cell killing. While clinical success has been achieved in a small number of tumor types, the repertoire of surface proteins available for targeting with this technology is limited, severely restricting the development of CAR-T cells for multiple tumor types. In addition, the surface proteins targeted to date are also expressed on normal cells, resulting in CAR-T-mediated killing of non-cancerous cells and potentially life threatening side effects related to the magnitude of the ensuing immune response.
To address the scope and selectivity issues of CAR-T, Axis is developing T Cell Receptor Engineered T Cell (TCR-T)-based approaches. A TCR’s ability to selectively recognize target cells comes from its unique capacity to recognize “antigens” on the surface of cells. These antigens can be selective identifiers of malignant cells and a growing number of tumor associated antigens (TAA) are being identified, enabling for engineering of a potent and selective TCR-T directed response against cancer.
Axis is developing cell based therapies that take advantage of the unique attributes of TCR mediated target recognition. Central to this platform is the ability to first identify endogenous TCRs with specificity for a defined tumor antigen and to than enhance the affinity of the TCR to optimize tumor recognition and killing. These High Affinity TCRs can be incorporated into a patient’s own T cells, converting the cells into a potent anti-cancer therapy.